Field Training Program was implemented at SPK from 24th February to 9th March 2021 for 2 weeks. Following members were participants of this program. This program was intended to instruct the conservation method of brick structures and archaeological/architectural research method and technique of the ancient Khmer site.
• Shimoda Ichita (University of Tsukuba)
• Chan Vitharong, Seng Chentha (National Authority for Sambor Prei Kuk)
• So Sokuntheary (Norton University)
• Kim Sophanna, Ty Ratha (Architecture, Royal University of Fine Arts)
• Sopeaktra Suou, Ngov Kosal (Archaeology, Royal University of Fine Arts)
• Nagaoka Masanori (UNESCO Phnom Penh)
• Chhum Menghong (National Cambodian Commission of UNESCO)
• Ishizuka Mitsumasa (Japanese Government Team for Safeguarding Angkor)
• Yoshikawa Mai (Napura Works)
Royal University of Fine Arts (Archaeology Course)
• Ms. Chea Kimchin
• Ms. Ngoun Chan Dariya
• Ms. Tith Sreylin
• Mr. Nem Charan
• Mr. Ouk Vannarith
Royal University of Fine Arts (Architecture Course)
• Ms. Chhourn Vichheka
• Ms. Teng Guechnay
• Ms. Try Sokharaksmey
• Mr. Ne Sopanha
• Mr. Seak Kimkav
Norton University (Architecture Course)
• Ms. Sak Sokuntheary
• Ms. Khat Sorina
• Mr. Lun Sochetra
• Mr. Pen Channarak
• Mr. Sao Manut
-Departure at 7:30 am
-Arrived at Kompong Thom (Sambor Village Hotel) 11:30 am (Figure 1 and 2)
- Kick Off Meeting of the Training Program (3pm-5pm)
1. Briefing on the training program and general introduction on the conservation project of SPK (Shimoda Ichita)
2. Self-introductions from trainers and students
3. Greeting and message
from Phan Nady (Director General, National Authority for Sambor Prei Kuk)
from Nakagawa Takeshi (Director, Japanese Government Team for Safeguarding Angkor)
There are 3 main points from the message from Nakagawa
a) Site training: During the site training, we need to find out what are the purposes of creating these shapes and forms in this architecture complex
b) Ask yourself what is Sambor Prey Kok and what is Angkor Wat. Find the answer by asking senior experts and local people.
c) Ask our own selves why we are here for? What is special about SPK in history and architecture?
4. General introduction on the conservation project of SPK (form Shimoda Ichita)
5. Explanation of the Field Survey (from Chan Vitharong, Sopheaktra Suou)
6. Remarks on the daily affairs (from So Sokuntheary)
7. Remarks on the accommodation (from Yoshikawa Mai)
(Report from Ne Sopanha)
l Lecturer Shimoda Ichita shared a brief history about Sambor Prei Kuk, tourism development, world heritage listed, archaeological site problems and as well as the establishment of Sambor Prei Kuk Authority.
Ø The discovery of the temples at Sambor Prei Kukwas in 1894.
Ø Started the action of the preservation, conservation, excavation and restoration by the SPK Conservation Project in 1998.
Ø Learning to analyze and deal with the certain problems in the local site.
l Lecturer Ishizuka explained deeply about the causes of the development and history of urban planning of Khmer civilization in ancient time
l Archaeological historic stations to further the study of Khmer civilization in the ancient time untilAngkor Period.
l Khmer characteristic during Chenla era has been influenced indirectly from India integrated critically with Khmer tradition and beliefs which created a unique Khmer identity.
l After the end of the session, Dr. SO Sokunthearyhas encouraged us that in order to acknowledge critically in conservation work, we must figure out in any other better solutions which is well synchronized with time.
(Reported by Lun Sochetra)
In the morning, the archaeology students checked in at about 10 am as we have been in Kampong Thom since Monday. In the afternoon, all students from both major met and introduced to one another at the hotel. At 3 pm, Professor Shimoda Ichita started the online lecture by briefing about the training program and general introduction on the conservation project of Sambor Prei Kuk. We also got another lecture from Professor Nakagawa Takeshi about the purpose of training program. He told us to understand the importance of archaeological sites in Cambodia especially Angkor and Sambor Prei Kuk sites. Some remarks from Mr. Chan Vitharong and Mr. Suon Sopheaktra as they explained us about the filed survey and setting the excavation trench. Before the end of the lecture of the first day Mrs. So Sokuntheary and Mrs. Yoshikawa Mai gave remarks about the daily affairs and accommodation.
(Reported by Ngoun Chan Dariya)
In the morning, all students from both majors have visiting the Sambor Prei Kuk archaeological site which presented by Mrs. SO Sokuntheary. She has explained us about the history of 3 complex temples of Sambor Prei Kuk site and she also explained us about architectural elements to student from both major.
As the first one she told us about the restoration, conservation and evolution of Derm Chan temple because this temple was not built in the same period. The central tower was built in the Pre-Angkorian. North tower and south tower were built in the Angkor period during the King Rajendravarmman II, in the 10th century. According to the inscription on the doorframe and the architectural elements from both towers.
Next, we went to N19 she has explained us about the structure was possibly built between Funan and Chenla period. She also explained about the position and the role of “Somasutra (water drain)” for worship in the temple.
After we moved to groups of Prasat Sambor, Mrs. Sokuntheary showed us about the general introduction of this groups temple but she focused on the Main temple N1 and also explained about the features of N1 (open on 4 sides) and method of the restoration of it. On the 10th century the King Rajendravarmman II has come there and built 4 more tower on the sub-directions.
Then we went to groups of Yay Poan and she told us that the central tower (S1) was built during the reign of Isanavarman I and dedication to Shiva. Main features of the central tower was built with the octagonal plan and shape and there are Flying Palace on the walls. Another features of Yay Poan groups is the medallion on the enclosure walls with the narrative.
In front of main tower there is a sub-tower (S2) that was called “Mandapa” and an inscriptions descried that a silver Nandin was originally dedicated on this pedestal.
In the afternoon we visited the last group of Sambor Prei Kuk is Prasat Tao. Prasat Tao was believed to be constructed at the end of 8th to the beginning of the 9th century by king Jayavarman II which is a later period than the northern and south temple group that was constructed in the 7th century. The lintel, colonnette decorated around the door frame of the Central tower are still in good condition. There are two lions statue sitting position and their curly hair style and comical face features are impressive. These characteristic lion statues were found in Phnom Kulen. Form these reasons this architectural compound is said to be constructed in the beginning of the Angkor period.
We have visited the Tamom temple and structure of the ancient city Isanapura.
Lastly, Mr. Chan Vitharong has showed us about the field survey and divided work for Architecture and Archaeology students.
Lecture on the history and research on SPK at 4:30 pm by Mr. Chan Vitharong
- Showing the map of archaeological site in Cambodia
- The responsibility and obligation of authority and related units of the conservation work
- Showing info graphic about research and preservation evolution time line
- What special about SPK are:
- Causes of damage are from nature and human
- LiDAR images showing us the city infrastructure of Isanapura
- Risk assessment and monitoring
- Archive collection
(Reported from Channarak Pen)
This morning around 8:30am we arrived at site
Mr. Chan Vitharong guided through Yeay Poan temples
o Visited S3 and explained about how the temple is reconstructed
§ He told us how to keep the S3’s damaged wall and corbeling arch which was originally remained standing after removed the tree
o After that we moved to S2
§ He mentioned some reasons that was collapsed by storm
§ There are several difficulties of removing wall conservation work
§ Preventive conservation by building the roof to prevent rain from ruin the structure
§ Steel support inside the temple to protect the wall from falling
o Turned to S10
§ At first it was dispersed octagon free standing walls
§ After monitoring he decided to use the cable rope to prevent it from falling apart
§ The tree around the temple may need to be cut down in the near future
o Temple S11
§ He mentioned a special conceptual roof structure that obliges to fix, allow the sun light come through, and avoid the rain
§ The base at the external wall is fixed with new bricks to keep the original form from disappearing
§ Some missing parts on the internal walls are reconstructed
N group temple site construction visited and learned the 5 conservation theories;
Lunch break around 12 o’clock
o Visited Prasat Bos Ream N24 at 1:40pm
o Visited Prasat Sandan N21
o Visited Prasat Kbal Chrouk N20
At 2:15 pm we left the temple back to the hotel.
In the evening we have two lectures with Professor Shimoda Ichita and Mr. Chan Vitharong.
In the first lecture Professor Shimoda Ichita explained us about the previous Archaeological Survey at Prasat Sambor. He showed us about the evolution of plan of the Prasat Sambor group from the 1927 by H. Parmentier until 2010 the plan was updated by founded one more outer enclosure with the moat. In 2017, by the used of LiDAR survey we could see the new structure of the Prasat Sambor.
The professor also mentioned about the excavation area, process and the recording system. He showed us more about the previous excavation and restoration activities. Like with the Central Shrine (N1), after the restoration we could know that it was built in the different periods. There was also an archaeological excavation along the terrace that found many huge tree roots and the experts removed this one by one.
Moreover, the expert also did the excavation in others areas such as East side, N10-W, N14- 1, N14-2, N7, East Gate of Inner enclosure and the terrace of Outer enclosure that was founded many stone elements like the lintel, colonette, pedestal, linga and there is also more feature like the pillar Holes, the drainage system, the Corner shrine, the difference side of the pavement stone and the differences of the structure. Some of the elements were repaired. Next, he also explained about the stratigraphy at the East Gate of Middle Enclosure that helped us to understand about the 4 differences layers of the soil that was built in difference period, especially we can know about the traditional history too.
At the end of this first lecture, Professor Shimoda Ichita have expressed his idea that there most of the Khmer temple were built by followed the Three typed of Khmer temple complex of Sambor Prei Kuk and the aims of the Archaeological Survey at Prasat Sambor.
For the second lecture, Mr. Chan Vitharong has added about the latest result of architecture survey by SCP and he showed more advices about the architectural drawing for the students from both majors to the site work.
Today is the first day that architecture, archeology students were divided to our position. In the morning, the archeology students were lay the grit by the help of teacher and the expert.
In the morning at the site Mr. Chan Vitharong explained us how to survey the floor plan of the temple (N10) by hands:
He told us that we can’t not survey the temple using the method like the normal building because the temple made of bricks by hands and used primitive method so some corners and angels are not exactly the same.
So we use the two lines and collided it by circle using compass and it created one point that are the new steady point.
We noted some cracks and damage and sketched it to the plan.
In the morning, the archeology students were lay the grit by the help of teacher and the expert. We used the remark point in the middle of N1 tower and then we measured 20 meters from that point to the north of N1(second point) after we measured 10 meters more from the second point to the east of second point. We did the clearance on the surface and the warning line around the excavation area. After lunch, we started to set the two excavation squares, in each square there was 1 m2 and we excavated a little bit.
In the afternoon, we attended the lecture presented by Mr. Ishizuka Mistumasa.
He showed us the five phases JSA and JASA have been working on.
We got to learn briefly about the architectural history that has evolved since the 8th century.
He also presented about the study for stability of the Central Tower, study for conservation of Bas-relief in Inner Gallery, and cooperative project such as Bayon Great Buddha and Naga and Lion.
Professor So Sokuntheary translated the message from Professor Nakagawa Takeshi which was mainly about Prasat Bayon and why it is so special for Cambodian people.
We got to learn about petrology, microbiology, art history, and also the recording working of the story on the gallery wall which is done by hand.
He showed us the process of restoration work of the North Library at Bayon temple.
He added that training the local people about the conservation work is essential because it will produce local experts who can continue to conserve and protect our own cultural heritage.
While cultural heritage is being conserved, the sustainable development of the community around Angkor is focused on too.
Our work site is at Prasat Sombor. We continue surveying and check the error points of N8 shrine floor plan at the site.
Just about 3:40 pm we went to visit two others prasat suchas Robang Romeas (group K) and Srei Krup Leak (group L) temples group site and general comprehensions
When we arrived at the temples, its structures was completely shattered in lot of pieces seemed like a small hill of bricks.
Finally, left the temples to the accommodation and had dinner with our professors as a family.
In the morning, we cleaned the surface of the excavation trenches from yesterday and we also set up two more squares to the west side of the old one, but we didn’t put the numbers or orders for the trenches yet, because we didn’t know that where we will set the new square or not.
We excavated in one of the new square and for every 10cm we did the recording by took the photos and after we took all the brick out. In the afternoon, we dig 10cm more and we saw only bricks that fail for the terrace. By the way, it was a bit hard for excavated because of the hard soil and the strong tree roots.
In the morning and afternoon at the site of excavation we still digging down the trenches and clean the soil from the trenches and took all the bricks out. We also found the piece of ceramic and draw it in to the plan and took a photo of it, the dating of the piece of ceramic maybe in Angkor period because of the shape and decoration of the ceramic.
After that we’re digging town 10cm more, we saw only bricks that maybe fell down from the structure of N1 or the bricks terrace. We recording all the position of brick in the trenches by took photos and after we took it out.
For the strong tree roots in the trenches, we plan to take it out tomorrow and it’s easy for us to digging down more.
During of excavation and field serving of student from both major, Mr. CHAN Vitharong has told us about the 3D photo scanning that it’s easy to use in both major.
Leaving the hotel to Sombor Prei Kuk site so as to do the site survey as usual.
Lecture by So Sokuntheary
In the evening, we also have a lecture by Mrs. SO Sokuntheary were about the sustainable development with community in Sambor Prei Kuk.
She provided the various information as follows;
Plus, at a very last minute of the lecture professor So Sokuntheary showed about Khmer structures such as pediment types, eaves board, and so on.
In the morning, we continue to digging down the trenches 10cm more and we saw the Brick floor on 40cm deep it’s took time to digging down more because we’re careful about the brick floor in the trenches. At the afternoon we’re set10 trenches more, 6 trenches to the west and 4 trenches to the north.
The purpose of the excavation is to see the structure of the brick terrace, and we also want to know the connection between the brick terrace and the pedestal near by the central tower. We numbed the trenches according to their distance from the 0 point on the stair. One more thing we’re found 2 more piece of ceramic in the B6 trench that maybe dating in the Angkor period, we also found the different shape of bricks A9, B9, B10 and cleaning the soil in the trenches, drawing and took some photos too.
In the morning we went to Kompong thom museum. Then we went to site continued to survey the plan from yesterday. We did a lot of measurements on every parts of temples as we worked as a team. We do the elevations by take photos of the temple and put in 3D program (Agisoft Metashape). We experienced using drone to shoot elevations in order to do a 3D structure. Also, we sketched and do some reconstruction.
After lunch break, we try to take the photos by drone. In afternoon around 3 o’clock we went to visit another museum called “Norak Vichea Museum (Khmer artificial museum)” .
In the evening we’re having the lecture from Professor Shimoda Ichita about the previous studies of the brick structure. This lecture is focus on the plan of temples and started compare the old plan and new plan of temples. He’s also mentioned us about the used of the Architectural drawings, variation of the design in Pre-Angkor and Angkor period, reconstruction at real field or virtual field, and recording during the restoration (before and after). After that he told us how to set the measure of the temples for architecture’s student and the last one, he showed us more about the damage/deterioration mapping, restoration plan drawing.
Today, we set the new plan that we attached yesterday was provisional one. For example, the trench in which we found the brick floor we name it N20E10 as it located 20 metres north and 10 metres east of the 0 point in the central of the shrine and this plan was guided by Mr. Chhum Menghong. We dig 10cm more in trench N20E8, N21E8, N20E7, N21E7, N20E6 and N21E6. Until this 10cm deep, we found the bricks that had fallen from the terrace, but there were also three pieces of ceramics that were found in the trench N21E6(two pieces) and N20E9.
In the afternoon, Mr. Chhum Menghong instructed us to use level machine to set the principle point for measure the deep of the objects or brick floor from that point and to name the trenches with proper name. After that we tried to use by our own and followed what he has told. We noted that main point of the level on the three at the east of the temple and we also copied that point to three other positions. At the end of our work, we just cleaned up and filled up our trenches with some water to make the soil easier to dig.
In the morning, after breakfast we stayed at the hotel trying to combine all the data of the elevation survey both measured by hand and by taking pictures in the 3D scanning software called Agisoft.
In the afternoon, we went to the site and collect more elevation data by using drone which was given to us by Mr Chan Vitharong the other day.
We came back from the site and had dinner together at somewhere in town with Professor So Sokunteary. When we back from the site we had dinner then go back to the hotel and render the photos in Agisoft
In the morning, we dig more 10 cm deep in the trench such as, N20E6, N21E6, N20E7, N21E7, N21E8, N21E8 because we want to make the same level with two other tranches (N20E10, N20E9, N21E10 and N21E9). During the excavation we saw a lot of bricks as usual that some are full, some are special and some are broken. We are also found a piece of ceramic from N20E6, a pebble stone and some stones. We spent a whole morning just to dig down because we pay more attention with this layer and the soil is very strong.
we stayed at the hotel, then continue to render the photos that we got from the site yesterday.
We had some problem with the photos yesterday.
It doesn’t match the surface maybe it because of the light and the results we didn’t get as expected.
We try to do the elevations as much as we can
After lunch we came back to the hotel early because today there are two lectures by Mr. Chum Menghong, Mr. Seng Chantha and Ms. Chhun Reaksmey. For first lecture by Mr. Chhum Menghong was talking about the archaeological study in Sombo Prei Kuk survey method such as the viewing the past survey in SPK site, the point that the archaeology should considered , studied about the past excavation survey , the excavation on the moat along the town and urban planning. He also showed us about the studied of the stratigraphy of the Isanapura City base on the excavation in 2014. Beside the result of C14 and the different type of the layer in the city, we can know that the people came to lived here since the Pre-Angkor period. At the last of his lecture was the case research and the excavation around the N1 terrace to see the floor structure of this tower. The second lecture by Mr. Seng Chantha was about the Conservation activities at Sombo Prei Kuk site. In his content, he has divided into four main sections:
1. The previous conservation since 1990 until 2017
2. Created the Royal Decree for Sombo Prei Kuk site
3. The conservation work and the plan of the conservation from 2017 to 2020
4. The method and the principle point of the restoration. There are six sections in the principle points:
a) The safety, b) Keep the viewing Authenticity, c) Intervention on the emergency part, d) Harmonize, e) Durability, f) Can be disassemble
This morning we stop dig down the trenches and we saw two pieces of ceramics and stone. We found two pieces of ceramics in the trenches N20E7, N21E7 that maybe in the date of Pre- Angkor period and Angkor period base on the decoration of it.
We took out all bricks that was fell from the terrace and cleaning the soil in the trenches, we can clearly see the brick floor and we used eye lever machine to see the level of the brick floors.
In the afternoon we learning how to drawing the structure of brick floors into the plan. About all of those bricks that we took out from the trenches we keep it somewhere near the excavation place, for the bricks that still in the full shape we can be used to repair in restoration work, and other broken pieces we used as lime mortar.
Today’s activities wasn’t so much different from the other day because we stayed at the hotel for a whole day to complete the project on Modeling software program of the temple.
In the morning, we continued to do the elevation plan. We separated the work for everyone. Relaxing and working on the project altogether just like what had happened on yesterday, until 1:40 pm we ordered Kuy Teav soups from outside to eat since we didn’t want to delay doing the project.
There was no meeting neither temple visited so we stayed at the place for a full day. We were silently working on our own job whichever related to the elevations or details.
Mr. Chan Vitharong came around to checked the plans we have been doing for the day. He instructed some parts for us to alter on the errors.
Dinner time was at a new other place that Dr. So Sokuntheary drove us and a professor from Royal University of fine arts to go with. Guys and girls had frying rice and frying noodle for the meal.
Today we spent a whole day for draw the brick floors and the section because we have already excavated to see the floor clearly by yesterday. We all sheared the trench to drew on the plan, it took long time to drew because some of the brick floors were broken that may destroy by the growing of the tree roots or dig by someone and some floor were not the straight line, so we need to be concentrated on the measure. Moreover, it also the first time to us that drew the brick floor and we already finished by this evening.
Just like yesterday’s activities we did today by finishing on the project. We focused mainly on the details of the four sides elevation. We fix some line in auto cad. Because there was no plan hanging out, we stayed at the place and ordered Amazon coffee drinks to boost energy for the day.
In the evening, we have a lecture by Ms. Yoshikawa Mai on the community involvement in Sombo Prei Kuk. Before starting her point, she mentioned us about her background (study and work). She described her experience when she first came to Cambodia by Waseda University. She really like to research on the community’s life of the people, so when she came to Kompong Tom, she has mixed with the local high school student went around the village to see the daily life of the villagers It was interest her a lot and she found her passion from that points. She showed us about the key points such as, made the people more interest with the heritages by expended the felling love with the temple to all people out of the field, brought the young students to the restoration site and push them to ask the question to the researchers or worker and she made herself as the bridge to be the connecter between the visitors and the villagers.
After Mai’s presentation, Pro. Sokun Theary sheared her first experience on the restoration work and she also encourage all the student to join the restoration activities in the future.
Today, In the morning we measured the level of all the brick floors in our trenches by using the level machine. After noted the level we started to measure the section by our own according to the showing by Mr. Ngov Kosal from yesterday. After finish the drawing section we prepared all the implement of the excavation. Then we did the clearance in and around the trenches before we left the site. The student from both major didn’t come to the hotel yet because we all want to have lunch at Sombo Prei Kuk site at last time before we finish the training program.
In the evening, we started to discuss about our presentation. By the way we have prepared the content in Khmer first because it is easy to understand for all of us and we will do it in English by tomorrow.
Last but not less, in our opinion we would like to presentation in Khmer with English slide because it is easy to explain clearly for all the students and also for the worker who join with us.
In the morning, we went to the site to compare the elevation and the tower and take some photos. We did the last survey plus scrutinized all the missing part also checked everything before leaving.
We added some new detail. Dr. So Sokuntheary told us about some new information like:
We tried to sketch some parts and it make more easy for us to understand how the original shape look like. When we arrived the hotel our team discuss how and what we are going to do tomorrow.
Right now at 9:41 pm some of us doing the report, some doing risk mapping, and some of us prepare for the presentation.
Today, we just spent the whole morning to discuss about the point of the presentation and made the slide for tomorrow. After lunch, about 1:30 pm we started to learn how to draw the ceramics with Mr. Kosal until the lecture start.
In the morning, we continued to prepare the presentation. Some of us still working on the sections and elevations plan. We tried to draw it accurately as much as possible.
We had lunch at the hotel to day and we order it from the outside. Then we continued to work on our plans and presentation. In the evening, we had a wonderful dinner at the hotel.
Right now at 12:04 am, some of us are still working on the plan and prepare for the presentation for tomorrow.
The last lecture of the program gave by Professor Mananori Nagoaka from UNESCO and it was talking about the World Heritage and the principle and the objective of it. Before started his point he gave us two questions to think 1. What is the meaning of the Word Heritage? and 2. Who preserve the heritage? After got the answers from the students, he also gave us his answer too.
Moreover, he also talks about the World Heritage Convention and Outstanding universal value for the heritage (site).
Furthermore, he explained to all of us about the illustrative master plan of the Naga Group 500 meters from the boundary zone of Angkor Wat. This is the important point that we need to discuss with each other to (agree and disagree) about that plan and there are many students that expressed their opinions through to this program. At least, the most important thing that we can deal with is to rise of the voices from all the people to choose between to protect our heritage or to promote our country by this project because this problem involves with everyone not only the government or the authority.
Final day of training program, students from both majors (Archaeology and Architecture) prepared for presentation about what we have done, what we have learn during our 2weeks training program.
The first group to present is Archaeology team, after that is Architecture team. When we’re finished our presentation, Professor Shimoda, Mr. Chan Vitharong, and some more trainers asked us various questions and make suggestions for developing about our presentation. After giving suggestions, the professor has showed us about inquiry that related to the training program.
We also got a message and some advice of Dr. Phan Nady the director general of National authority of Sambor Prei Kuk.
Before we came back to Phnom Penh, Dr. SO Sokuntheary is given the certificated to Archaeology and Architecture’s students. Finally, we left Kompong Thom and arrived at Phnom Penh around 7pm.
During our training program we would like to thanks to University of Tsukuba , Sambor Prei Kuk National Authority, Royal University of Fine Arts and Norton University for given us chance to join this training program, we learn a lot from lecture and all professor, we gain more experience on how to do excavation and learn more about the restoration and conservation at Sambor Prei Kuk.
Thank you so much!
World Heritage Program, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, UNIVERSITY of TSUKUBA