Field Training Program was implemented at SPK from 25th July to 7th August 2022 for 2 weeks. Following members were participants of this program. This program was intended to instruct the conservation method of brick structures and archaeological/architectural research method and technique of the ancient Khmer site.
Trainers at site:
• Shimoda Ichita (University of Tsukuba)
• Chan Vitharong (National Authority for Sambor Prei Kuk)
• So Sokuntheary (Norton University)
• Phal Piseth (Architecture, Royal University of Fine Arts)
• Un Vutha (Archaeology, Royal University of Fine Arts)
• Chhum Menghong (National Cambodian Commission of UNESCO)
• Chun Sopeaktra (Head of Museum Office, Kompong Thom Provincial Department of Culture and Fine Arts)
- Ms. Chiv Kimchheng (Royal University of Fine Arts, Archaeology, level 3)
- Ms. Im Botum (Royal University of Fine Arts, Archaeology, level 3)
- Ms. Nao Leakkana, (Royal University of Fine Arts, Archaeology, level 3)
- Ms. Heng Kimhun (Royal University of Fine Arts, Archaeology, level 2)
- Mr. Sun Sambath (Royal University of Fine Arts, Archaeology, level 2)
- Ms. Heng Sophon (Royal University of Fine Arts, Archaeology, level 2)
- Ms. Sreang Dane (Royal University of Fine Arts, Archaeology, level 2)
- Mr. Sophea Yuk (Royal University of Fine Arts, Architecture, level 4)
- Ms. Chan Khytaka (Royal University of Fine Arts, Architecture, level 4)
- Mr. Pen Channarak (Norton University Architecture, level 4)
- Ms. Leng Kimleang (Royal University of Fine Arts, Architecture, level 3)
- Mr. Sim Sereiboth (Royal University of Fine Arts, Architecture, level 3)
- Ms. Reoung Sreykhouch (Royal University of Fine Arts, Architecture, level 3)
- Mr. Sochea Ravid (Royal University of Fine Arts, Architecture, level 3)
- Ms. Khorn Savanvotey (Royal University of Fine Arts, Architecture, level 2)
All trainees departed from Phnom Penh at 8AM and arrived in Kompong Thom around 11AM.
We hold a first meeting from 3PM to 6PM.
Fistly, So Sokuntheary explained the general information on this program for next 2 weeks. Then, Shimoda Ichita told on the purpose of this training program, and introduce himself. After all trainers and trainees introduced themself, Chan Vitharong provided a lecture on the activities of National Authorities for Sambor Prei Kuk. He explained so detail on the history of SPK and current restoration works.
After the meeting, we enjoyed the dinner at the hotel.
We departured from Sambor village hotel to the site at 8:15.
After arriving at the site, we got explanation on the general background of SPK, restoration, excavation, method made lime mortar by Prof. Shimoda and Prof. Sokunteary
Then, we observed on N1 and N7 shrines for learning about its history and technical work on restoration.
Around 11Am, we went to Prasat Yeay Poan, and Mr. Vitharong lectured on some technical work that his team done on Yeay Poan Group.
Furthermore, around 12Pm, we went to Prasat M40 and discussing about tree grow on the temple and he asked us what should we do about that tree? "Should we cut it or cut some parts of it or cut it all out?" Some of us have different idea, but we think cut some parts of it to reduce the load is the better option.
Then, 12:30Pm we went to Prasat Tao and Mr. Vitharong explained about the project about restoration work in Pasat Tao and some of its history.
From 1:15 to 2:30, we took a rest for lunch.
Then, we went to Khnach Tol in the moated city area to learn about the current restoration and archaeological excavation there.
About 4:30, we came back to the hotel.
From 5PM ot 7PM, we got a lecture from prof. Shimoda about causes of deterioration, restoration policy/technique of brick structure, and various methods of building recording and analysis.
- 9:30 we arrived at Prasat Sambor and the architecture team went to N15 to taken the photos for making 3D scan by prof. Ichita.
-About 10:30am we moved to Khnach Tol.
-learnt about the method of measurement
-We cleaned one of the excavation sites at the Khnach Tol temple and we leaved at 11:50am for lunch.
-About 13:30 we moved to Sambor temple and learn the process how to make mortar by Mr Seang Sopheak and local people untie Khim Yim after this we tried to fill the crack by motar at the west side of Sambor temple.
-About 16:00pm Mr. Sopheak showed us about the technical work that he supervised at N7 and we leaved the site at 4:10pm and we were exchanging about our experience with the archaeology students on the bus.
-During this morning, Mr. Sreng Sopheak showed us the material, method of making lime mortar and how to use lime mortar. We are practiced how made lime mortar and how to apply lime mortar on brick
- For Mr. Sun Sambath (student), Mr Sopheak showed us the restoration at the temple(N7) and taught how to cut bricks and polish(?) put? bricks to fill in the gaps of the door with local people
- About 12:10pm We have lunch.
1:30pm We leave Sambor temple to Khnach Tol to see the excavation site and Mr. Vitharong showed the excavation site and Mr. shimoda ichita showed and taught how to measure and set up excavation pits and Mr. Vitharong measure and set up excavation pits.
- About 2:50pm we started excavation on 3nd pit, that is 1m × 6m that (from south to north), in depth 10cm and we discovered laterites there.
- At 2rd excavation pit, it is 1m × 6m (from west to east.)
- At excavation, the 1st pit that we start excavation has 1m × 6m from north to south.
- from 5:20 to 6:30 we got a lecture on the excavation methods from Prof. Shimoda Ichita.
We learn about the excavation, recording, analyzing method, and some previous excavation at SPK. At the end of the lecture, Prof. Shimoda explained the usage of Total Machine and Level machine briefly.
-9:25am we are the architecture team arrived at the Prie kuk site and we went to the M.15 first
. 4people of architecture team remain at the m15 to do the overdraw of the 4 facades of the temple and 4 people left to the M11 and W to take photo
-we were taking to the W by the private Prof.Ichita car’s and we were given about an hour for taking photos for a 3D view
-after 22min or working we have done the photographing and we took a look at the enclosure wall of the W temple monument
-then we headed to the M11 to continue photographing, the M11 were clearing the green and cleaning by the local people, However we couldn’t taking photos of the temple because of the local people cleaning the temple
-there an hour left before having lunch so we took off to the Knach Tol and Prof.Ichita lecture us about the level machine, at the moment we came here and saw the excavation process by the archeology team (3 teams and 3 excavations) as can be seen, the archeology team were digging up the soil and saw some brick and laterite.
-11:55am Prof.Ichita taught us how to use the level machine and we had been given a try
-1pm it can be a bit late lunch for us but we enjoyed
-2pm, we finished the lunch and went to the M15 to dropped off the Pro.Ichita and we went on to Knach Tol back
-we arrived the Khnach Tol site and prepare level machine for the lesson then we used level machine to measure the 3 excavations by the benchmark we had
Overall, we had such a new experience about the archeology and the new technique of how to overdraw the façade of the monument with a new software photoscaning to 3D and today we had seen the actual excavation which also found a ceramic. At last, we did a Level machine course to the archeology team and measured those three excavations.
-Todays in the morning we continued open excavation pits all Length 6m and width 1m with the local’s people. So, this is total we excavation down to the bottom depth is the length 70cm. So, at in excavation down is have depth 21cm we encountered Brick wall structure on both sides and continued we excavation More down 40.6cm, we encountered structure brick is so much in have length 4m this thinks found pits excavation. The front of the excavation pits faces south and then we continue to dig further to the back to the north, 5 cm long, and see a few scattered bricks. On the other hand, in front of the south side, in front of the excavation pits which is 3 cm long, it was found that the bricks had fallen and there was a big tree stump with many labyrinthine roots all over, causing many difficulties in excavation.
-At 2nd excavation pit, we continued excavation had 1m × 6m. that pits have 2face (east, west), and we started to continued excavate down ground to depth 10cm and we had seen structure of laterite. After that Mr. Shimoda ichita came and tell how to cut some excavate facing. That at the west had cut 2m, east cut 1m that it rests 3m more for excavation and we started excavate dig down ground more, but we still had seen structure of laterite. When we excavate, we seen some consequence because it had seen tree roots around laterite.
- At 9am we continued dig down ground to 30cm at 3nd excavation and we have seen 4 pieces of brick (1m, 2m) it had depth 30cm, and then we continued dig down ground and seen pieces of ceramic depth at 50cm. After that we opened facing pits 2m more.
- At 2:50pm architecture team and archaeology team leaned about the usage of Auto level machine for measuring level near excavation area.
-The lecture started at 5:20pm by Mrs. So Sokuntheary. She lectured on the following items:
· History of Sambor Prie Kuk Grape: explained the mapping of the three temples and the mapping of the capita.
· Showed cultural landscape of Sambor Prie Kuk archaeological group art of Sambor Prie Kuk: fly place, lintel and statutes in Sambor Prie Kuk temple.
· Research and preservation in the past: Mr. Louis Finot, Mr. Henri Parmentier, Mr. Victor Goloubew, Mr. Bernard Philippe Groslier.
· Human resource and training program
· Human resources development
· Living heritage around Sambor Prie Kuk
· History of conservation: clean, excavation, repair and protect.
· Sustainable development and community.
· The criteria of Sambor Prie Kuk temple included in word’s heritage.
-8:50 we reached the Knach Tol site and we were dropped off together to check the excavation and discuss about the laterite that were consider it was an enclosure wall to dig down more
-we did a level survey between benchmark A and the enclosure wall and the excavationB
-Prof. Ichita also showed about the excavation and how to made a scale by ourself in an emergent way, Mr. Tharong also involve
-Mr. Tharong explained us about the exact thing of the enclosure wall.
-Prof. Ichita assigned us to sketch the molding and facade of the Knach Tol monument by separate us in 4groups
-about 1pm we had lunch together at the site which was delivered by the seller
-after lunch we continued the drawing
-3:00pm Ravid and Narak travel to M11 by bus to took photograph of the temple
-4:00pm Ravid and Narak have done the photographing and back to knach tol to picked up the other and Professor
-4:30 we were going to the museum and guided by Mrs. Sopheaktra about the antiquities and how to recognize the identify in each
• 9:00am, Mr. Shimoda Ichita he tells them (architecture and Archeological students) to known when we see wall at 1st excavate pit it had 3point to think. 1st there is laterite on the brick. 2rd there can build only brick. 3nd there is brick in the middle and limestone on both sides.
• Mr. Vitharong explain why should we expand the pit? And the reason, because we want to know the shape of structure more than before, and to know the structure is fail down or build more. Sometime we should remove laterite to know shape more, but before we remove it, we should take photo, drawing, measure...
• Mr. Shimoda teach them how to use level (small)
• Mr. Shimoda had keep the pieces of ceramic.
• Mr. Vitharong how to do excel when we make inventory.
-After studied with Mr. Shimoda Ichita and Mr. Vitharong.
-Todays in the morning we continued open excavation pit more to the east. So, this have length 2m and width 1m By Starting from the front facing south, the length is 3 m on the east sides we excavation the width by open 2 cm. But today we expand to side the excavation pits because we want to continue to find the structure more clearly. After studying the excavation, the teacher taught me how to measure height with a level (Z) machine with size A 125.5cm. To reach the height of the mouth, dismantle the three excavations. And the heights of temples KHT1 and KHT2.
-we continued excavation had 1m × 6m. we started to continued excavate yesterday down ground to depth 10cm and we had seen structure of laterite. After that Mr. Shimoda came and tell how to cut some excavate facing. That at the west had cut 2m, east cut 1m that it rests 3m more for excavation. But today we continued excavation 1m west and 1m east because we seen structure of laterite. Today we excavation had 1m × 5m. we cleaned the tree roots around laterite and the mouth of the pit.
-We continued excavate 3nd pit and expand the size of the excavation pit to the west (1m × 3m), when we dip down ground, we seen more laterite and then cleaned pit more.
Kompong Thom Museum Visit
-The evening 5:00pm we arrived the museum of Kompong Thom province.
• Mrs. Thun Sopheaktra showed map of Kompong Thom province.
• Showed about Yeay Poan Temple plan and construction material sat at Angkor period.
• Introduction about lintel, Linga and nine divinities
• Expand museum, showed the Flying Palace, Lintel, Statue, miniature monument, pedestals, decorate, shape.... at Pre-Angkor and Angkor period.
-at the Khnach Tol site, Prof. Ichita and Mr. Tharong explain us about how to measure the monument structure and explained to the archeology team about the excavation work of the day
-we were working on grid line the measurement method together
-after that we were separated in two team, one still remaining the measurement and another team survey a total machine to point the coordination
-after lunch we continued working on the gridding
-we have used the level machine to confirm the level of the monument and some of us have done the layout plan and some still probing on the ornament
- Dr.Simoda and Mr.Vitharong tells work to do today ( architecture and archeological students)
- The excavate pit 1 (TN) we continued to excavate pits had 1mx6m and we excavation one more pit is have had 1m×2m in more to the East and both of Excavation pits is more dig down 1m the same. and then we cleaned structure of brick at 4 squares in more the south and we cleaned pits, mouth pits and cut the tree root.
- Pit 2 (TE) We continued excavated dig down ground to pit. which was 1× 5 meters in size, and we went down to the 5th square, which went down to a depth of 30 cm and cleaned the roots and the mouth of the pit.
- Pit 3 (TS) we cleaned laterite, adjust wall and the dip down ground.
- And Then everyone met with professor Meng Hong (archaeology teacher) he showed more excavations today and the next day.
Lecture from Prof. Phal Piseth
- After we arrived at the hotel we have lectured by teacher Piseth about his experience working on Angkor Conservation, important role of traditional architecture in Khmer modern style.
- Architect team were continued group work from yesterday
- Some of us were working on grid line again because some lines of grids were error
- After lunch, all of architecture team were working on floor plan and elevations
All student’s archaeology met Mr. Chuum Menghong teaching them how to use water level, Measure the height of the excavate how to see soil layer, analysis soil layer, how to draw the bottom layout, side view layout and sketch the laterite. and we start do that at pit 2 (TE) and pit 3 (TS)
pit 1 we continued to dig down more excavations we also found a sandstone structure as a door frame. we take a photo and remove the brick and clean and dig down more we found two slabs of sandstone structure one big, one small. At 4:00pm we start drawing the bottom layout or side view layout.
Lecture from Dr. Chhum Menghong (UNESCO Cambodia)
After we arrived at the hotel, we have lectured by Mr. Chuum Menghong about archaeology. past excavation surveys in SPK. About urban planning of Isanapura, culture layer in Isanapura and ceramic type in SPK.
-Prof. Ichita explained how to surveyed section plan and drew North-South Section (Westside) as the example. Also, we continued to working on what the leftover from yesterday.
-We’ve done of Floor plan, East-West section (Northside), North-South Section (Westside) and North elevation.
-Before returned back at hotel, Our plans were checked by the prof. Shimoda.
-The excavate pit 1 (TN): we continued the excavation, we cleaned the wall to measure the topsoil on the west wall, then we draw the topsoil and looked at the colors to classify the soil type, and we continued the excavation. Digging further down further south, also found a sandstone structure (stairs).
-The excavate pit 2 (TE): Mr. Oum Vutha gave more instructed on how to draw the bottom structure of the excavated pits structure and we moved the laterite that fell to dig down ground more in the western pit, 1m× 3m but we dug only 1m×2m.
- The excavate pit 3 (TS): we continued sketch and draw the laterite measure by each square.
-we arrived khnach tol at 9am, we finish drawing elevation plan and section plan at KHT1
-about 12am we have a break to have lunch
-at 1pm we start cleaning KHT2 for taking photos to do photo scan
-after that, Prof. Sokuntheary check and corrected our plan
-After that we also asking one of the officer (about the structure and some of the lintel that excavated from the structure 1 and 2)
-at 5pm we leave Khnach tol to hotel
- at the pits 1 , Mr. Oum Vutha by taught about how to draw Bottom layout of the structure
- 2rd pit, we continued to dip down ground at west(1m ×2m) because want to know the height of the wall.
- We continued excavate 3nd sketch, draw the laterite measure by each square and seen wall when we dip down ground (1m × 2m).
Lecture from Dr. Um Vutha
- After we arrived at the hotel, we have lectured by Mr. Um Vutha. He presents the method of survey the structure plan/section and his research experiences.
- At the site Prof. Ichita and Prof.Theary tracing on photo scan like 4elevation, Top view and all of us finished works.
- After lunch, all of architecture team and archaeology team exchange their experience on excavation and survey method.
-after that H.E Pannady came to visite us asking about our experience.
-Together were going to visited community market and prof.Theary explains The activities for the livelihood and housing issues inside the protection zone of SPK
-After that we went to kompong chertel village and prof.Theary show us about the old khmer traditional house and the regulation inside core zone, buffer zone and satellite zone.
At 1st trench, we continued clean and dig down more and drawing and brick stone.
At 2nd trench, we dip down ground at east side to equal the west side and we start to draw side view layout at west wall.
At 3rd trench, we continued excavate, sketch, draw the laterite.
When we dip down ground at west we seen 4 pieces of earthen ware after that we take photo, measure X, Y, Z and keep in a plastic with writing from place, TS, X Y Z, object, date on plastic and writing in recording of excavated artifacts paper.
After lunch, architectural and archaeological students have exchange of work experience between two team, and Mrs.So SokunTheary taken to see the traditional house built in Sambor Prei Kuk resort area.
Lecture from Dr. So Sokuntheary:
Dr So provided a lecture on the model of houses and structures in the protected area of Sambor Prei Kuk temple. In addition, about the activities for the livelihood and housing issues inside the protection zone of SPK
When we arrived at the Khnach Tol site Prof. Ichita separate the archeology team to each excavations as usual and separate the architecture student into groups by each of the group chose their own duty as 2 of us remain at the Khnach Tol doing reconstructing parts of the temple and the other 6 people went to Prie Kok to do the comparison between the Khnach Tol and some of prei kok monument to determine if they were built in the same century by checking on the ornament and molding and the shape of the temple (some are octagonal and some are 4 side shape).
-Narak and Votey: comparing ornament between Khnaach tol and Yeay Poan Group.
-Kimleang and Taka: comparing ornament between Khnach tol and Sombor Group.
-Seriebot and Sophea: comparing plan of Knach tol between sambor group and yeay paon.
-Kouch and Ravid: stay at knach tol to reconstruct all broken sandstone
Archaeological students continued the drawing (plan, section, and soil stratigraphy) in each trenches, and collecting excavated artifacts.
Lecture from Ms. Mariko Shimoda:
We got a lecture about study on the buddhism monument in post Angkor period.
All of us stayed at the hotel to finished our work and to know what should we need more to complete this project.
After that we decided that Sreykouch team and Taka team need some more information so they need to go to the site again tomorrow.
In the evening we have a party that join by NASPK, trainees and trainer.
Sreykouch, Taka and Shopea decided to go to site with Prof. Sokuntheary to get more information.
They went to Prasat Sondan(N21), Prasat Bosream(N24) ,N22 and N1.
-At 9:00am we arrived the Khnach Tol. We returned to the work at excavation area, and continued the drawing the bottom structure of the excavated pits structure and section of excavated trench, and photo recording.
At night, we had a dinner party at the hotel.
Many related members from National Authority for Sambor Prei Kuk and Department of Culture and Fine Arts were gathered.
We enjoyed the BBQ and finally dancing.
Today we don’t go to the site, we stay at Sombor village. The student starts to prepare their presentation tomorrow. They clean the artifacts (ceramic) that we found during excavation and take the photo for all pieces of the ceramics.
We scan our plan and plan section and I teach the students how to draw the plan and section by using Adobe illustrator and export for the power point and the final report.
Today we studied on the recording excavated artifacts ; drawing and taking photo at hotel. Prof. Shimoda and Ms. Yokoyama instructed us these methods by the earthenwares which were unearthed from two trenches.
Then, we prepared the presentation for final presentation in tomorrow.
We hold final presentation at hotel from 10AM.
Firstly architecture studetns did the presentation as follows;
a) how to record/survey the present condition of brick structure by hand measurement
b) how to record the present condition of brick structure by photogrametry
c) comparizon study between excavated two structures at Khnach Tol and brick shrines in temple area by plan and molding ornament
d) restoration method of brick structures
Then, archaeological students made the presentation as following contents;
e) how to carry out the excavation work
f) how to record the excavated structure by plan, section and soil stratigraphy
g) how to record the excavated artifacts by drawing and photos
h) considering the original shape and function of the excavated structure from three trenches at Khnach Tol
Afterall, lecturers provided their comments and advices to both presentations.
Prof. Shimoda gave us the final explanation on the further studies and data analysis on our results.
Finally, we received certificate of completion.
We departed from the hotel at Kompong Thom to Phnom Penh at 2pm.
World Heritage Program, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, UNIVERSITY of TSUKUBA